The Bremen Soviet Republic

324px-Eine_Regierungsschutztruppe_für_Bremen_-_Plakat_1919January 10th, 1919. The Bremen Soviet Republic is proclaimed. Although officially this short-lived Bolshevist state was, indeed, established on January 10th, 1919, for all practical purposes it was founded two months earlier – even before the collapse of Imperial Germany (the Second Reich) and the proclamation of Weimar Republic.

On November 6th, 1919, the radical labor activists (by the end of the Great War radical lefties enjoyed significant support in Bremen due to high employment levels in heavy industry), formed the Workers’ Council.

The Council was predictably dominated by members and sympathizers of the Spartacus League – the predecessor of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) – it was renamed that way less than two months later.

On January 10th, the Worker’s Council declared the establishment of the Bremen Soviet Republic and renamed itself the Soviet of People’s Representatives (following the Russian blueprint). Its leaders were mostly Leninists which for all practical purposes made them the “fifth column” of the Russian Bolshevists in the city (and thus in Germany).

The leader of the Soviet was one Johann Knief – a teacher by profession and a hard-left politician by “calling”. Although he was not Jewish, but a full-blooded German, he was a close associate of Karl Radek (born Karol Sobelsohn), a prominent Jewish Bolshevist activist and functionary.

Which gave the German anti-Semites (and subsequently the Nazis) the reason to (incorrectly) state that the BrSR, like all other Communist coups, uprisings and short-lived states were important components of a “global Jewish conspiracy” which represented an existential threat to Germany, Europe and the whole Western civilization.

Under his leadership, the Bremen left-wing radicals formed the Internationale Kommunisten Deutschlands (IKD) – a small Communist party which subsequently merged with the Spartacists into KPD.

The ultimate objective of IKD (as well as of the Bremen Soviet and the whole BrSR) was to nationalize the city economy and to establish the “dictatorship of the proletariat” (i.e. of the Communist party) first in the city and subsequently in the whole Germany, Europe, etc.

The Weimar Government had no desire to let it happen, fearing the “domino effect” throughout the whole Germany. After successfully crushing the “Spartacist Uprising” in Berlin a month earlier, in the first days of February the federal government (actually, the German President Friedrich Ebert) sent the Freikorps to Bremen to do what they had successfully accomplished in the German capital.

Which they did – at a cost of about 80 Communists killed in action or executed without a trial (the latter included just about all BrSR leaders). The city of Bremen fell on February 4th with its city-harbor (Bremerhaven) holding out until it was finally captured and secured by federal government forces on February 9th.

The Ruhr Uprising


March 13th, 1920.  The Ruhr Uprising begins. The Ruhr Uprising of March – April 1920 proved beyond the reasonable doubt that the Left (KPD and their political allies) we no friends of the liberal-democratic Weimar Republic.

And that they crushed the Kapp Putsch (by organizing the general strike) not because the loved the German Republic (in reality, it hated its guts) but only because they hated the Right even more.

The Ruhr Uprising proved beyond the reasonable doubt one more fact: that the Left would seize any and every opportunity to bring down the Weimar Republic and to replace it with the Bolshevist dictatorship. Using brutal armed force if and when necessary. Which made them a genuinely existential threat to Germany.

The Left claimed that they initiated the uprising only to support the general strike called for by the SPD of the German government, the unions and other parties – and thus only to crush the right-wing Kapp Putsch and to save the Weimar Republic from being destroyed by the putschists.

However, it was only a cover, a ruse, a smokescreen for their real objective – to establish the “dictatorship of the proletariat” (i.e. of the German Communists). In fact, the blueprint for such an uprising in the event of a general strike (initiated for any reason) had been developed long before the Kapp Putsch.

The German republican government had no desire to see the repeat of the bloody experience of Bavarian Soviet Republic (or the Berlin March Battles for that matter) so it promptly brought in a combined force of Reichswehr and (predictably) Freikorps.

They were severely outnumbered – the government force of about 10,000 faced the 50,000-strong “Red Ruhr Army” (according to other estimates, it numbered over 80,000 with over Ruhr 300,000 workers supporting it).

However, the Reichswehr and Freikorps has a far superior equipment, organization training (and probably motivation as well). Which ultimately made all the difference – by April 12th, the uprising was brutally suppressed.

This time, none of the leaders of the Communist uprising was Jewish (all were full-bloodied Germans). However, this irrefutable fact did not change the deep-seeded belief of the Nazis that all Communist coups and uprisings were components of one gigantic “global Jewish conspiracy”.


The Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch (2)

AH35Now the gargantuan question is: WHY??? Why on Earth such prominent and powerful individuals – both military and civilian – wanted a total political nobody so badly that they sent a military aircraft (!!!) for him? To Munich, of all places…

Only one rational explanation comes to mind (especially it we recall the statement by Captain Karl Mayr that he ordered Adolf Hitler to infiltrate DAP because he was asked to do so by Erich Ludendorff).

Although the Thule Society was in no way involved in the Kapp Putsch (there is absolutely no evidence that it was), it immediately saw an opportunity to make a quantum leap in executing its Divine Mission.

So they asked Erich Ludendorff (again) to intervene on behalf of Adolf Hitler – and bring the latter to Berlin. Hoping that at some point they would be able to implant Hitler into the future right-wing government (i.e. as a Minister of Propaganda). And subsequently make him a Chancellor – and then the dictator of Germany.

However, although the Thule Society was pretty powerful, it was not omnipotent. Hence, this time they failed – and failed miserably… but only in Berlin. In Munich, the Kapp Putsch was a resounding success.

The Bavarian Reichswehr (a semi-autonomous Bavarian Army) toppled the Social Democratic state government and replaced it with the right-wing regime of Gustav Ritter von Kahr (which treated NSDAP and Hitler personally far more favorably than the Republican government).

However, even in Berlin the putsch was not a complete failure – not by a long shot. First, although on the surface the Weimar Republic survived and crushed the coup, in the long term it received a fatal blow.

The problem was that the Republic did not save itself – it was saved by the Left who promptly organized the general strike (the largest one in German history). The Left who passionately hated the “capitalist” Weimer Republic and saved it only because they hated the Right even more.

And thus will be patiently (or not-so-patiently) waiting the opportunity to bring down the Republic and replace it with a different kind of dictatorship – the Left one. Which the latter proved right then and there – by starting the Ruhr Uprising that I will cover in the next section of this chapter.

In short, the Kapp Putsch resulted in the collapse of the “political center” – the foundation of any liberal-democratic republic. In the next Reichstag elections (on June 6th), the number of votes cast for the center-left SPD and the center-right Democratic Party fell by more than half, compared to the previous (January 1919) elections.

At the same time, while the extreme right-wing German National People’s Party (DNVP) (whose voters eventually switched to the Nazis) and the extreme left-wing USPD gained substantially. Which meant that the so-called “Weimar Coalition” lost its majority in Reichstag and would never regain it.

This radical political change in Germany made the job of Adolf Hitler, his now NSDAP and the Thule Society no less radically easier. Instead of fighting two enemies, who were “frenemies” to each other, the Nazis now had to fight only one – the Lefties (KPD and its allies). The centrist were no longer a serious political opponent.

Another achievement of the putschists was that the Social-Democratic President of Germany Friedrich Ebert had to let the Reichswehr become so independent of civilian authorities that it essentially became “the state within a state”. Which made the job of the Nazis to make the German Army their allies (an absolute must to acquire the dictatorial power in Germany) so much easier.


The Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch (1)


March 13th, 1920.  The Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch in Berlin. The Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch (usually referred to as simply Kapp Putsch) proved beyond the reasonable doubt that the Left were not the only ones who wanted to do away with the pathetic Weimar Republic and to establish the totalitarian dictatorship.

The Right (i.e. the nationalists) wanted the same thing – only they wanted a very different dictatorship. In fact, it was exactly the virulent hatred from both Left and Right that doomed the “Weimar Experiment” right from the start.

The only question was what would replace it – fascist, Communist or Nazi dictatorship – and when. The Kapp Putsch proved it beyond the reasonable doubt – in just four days.

Consequently, I wholeheartedly agree with historians (“mainstream” and others) who unequivocally state that

“the collapse of Weimar Republic  cannot be understood without understanding the Kapp Putsch and its consequences [especially its consequences]”

The putschists were defeated not by Reichswehr or police (who either remained neutral or openly supported the former), but by the nationwide general strike – the largest in German history. In other words, by government bureaucrats (who wanted to save the republic) and by factory workers (who wanted to replace it with another dictatorship – Red instead of Black).

Which taught Adolf Hitler a very important lesson – to topple the Weimar Republic and replace it with Nazi dictatorship (the Führerstaat) he had to find the way to win the hearts, minds and souls of both government officials (top to bottom) and the factory workers. It also meant that the decision to keep the “Workers” part in the name of the party (and to include it there in the first place) was an excellent one.

There is no evidence that the Thule Society was in any way involved with the Kapp Putsch. However, the story of the Kapp Putsch is… well, interesting.

For starters, this failed nationalist uprising should have been called the “Lüttwitz Putsch” because it was started and led by General Walther von Lüttwitz, who at the time was in command of all Reichswehr troops in and around Berlin (appropriately called Gruppenkommando I). He was also the highest ranking general in the German army and was in overall command of several Freikorps (paramilitary units).

Although Wolfgang Kapp, a 62-year-old nationalist East Prussian civil servant had been planning a coup against the Weimar Republic for some time, in the actual coup Kapp played a supporting role.

Von Lüttwitz did not become a General der Infanterie by being stupid. Hence while he knew for a fact that he did have sufficient resources to seize power in Germany, he had no clue how to run the country… especially during such interesting times as the 1920s.

Therefore, he immediately brought on board Nationale Vereinigung (National Association) – a right-wing, anti-Republican organization founded just five months earlier – in October 1919. The primary objective of NV was to fight Bolshevism in Germany (if necessary, by doing away with the impotent Weimar Republic and installing a right-wing dictatorship in its place).

The group was well-financed and brought together an impressive cast of characters – industrialists, bankers, large landowners, retired generals of the Imperial Army, senior civil servants, etc.

The group was founded Erich Ludendorff (who in 1917-18 essentially ruled Germany and was the most powerful individual in the Second Reich). His partners were Colonel Bauer (a political advisor to Ludendorff during the First World War), Captain Waldemar Pabst (who played a key role in suppressing the Spartacists Uprising in January of 1919 and ordered the execution of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht)… and, of course, Wolfgang Kapp – a far-right German politician made a Chancellor by von Lüttwitz (hence the name of the failed putsch).

And this is where the real mystery begins.


His Timeline – the “Micro-Biography” of Adolf Hitler (15)

20191106_192128000_iOSJuly 10-19th, 1919.  Adolf Hitler attends the “national thinking” courses. Transfiguration provided Adolf Hitler with the capabilities of the greatest orator of the XX century. But to use these capabilities in the most efficient way, he had to go through at least some basic training in public speaking.

And that’s exactly what he did. For ten days he attended the courses in “national thinking” (i.e. nationalist ideology), public speaking and propaganda techniques at the Reichswehrlager (Army base) Lechfeld near Augsburg.

Judging by the fact that in mid-1920s Karl Mayr became a fierce opponent of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party (he even joined the SPD and became the member of its paramilitary force – Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold), he was kept completely in the dark about the whole “special op”.

Consequently, he assigned Adolf Hitler (as an instructor) to the Anti-Communist “Educational Commando” of Bavarian Reichswehr not because he was ordered to do so (that would have been too suspicious) but because he was genuinely impressed by his oratorical skills during public speaking practice.

Now Adolf Hitler was ready to join the DAP. The party created by the Thule Society for the specific purpose of executing its Divine Mission. To fight and win the existential war with Bolshevist hordes and to save Germany, Europe and the whole Western Civilization from being destroyed by the Bolsheviks and transformed into a very real Hell on Earth.


September 19th, 1919.  Adolf Hitler joins the DAP – German Workers’ Party. In early September of 1919, Karl Mayr ordered Adolf Hitler to infiltrate then tiny and obscure German Workers’ Party (DAP). Infiltrate, obviously, by attending its next meeting scheduled for September 12th.

It was a rather strange order, because as a member of the “Educational Commando” of Bavarian Reichswehr, Adolf Hitler was supposed to dedicate himself completely to brainwashing his fellow soldiers – not spying on the miniscule political party of no significance (let alone power) whatsoever.

Hence, there is little (if any) doubt that Captain Mayr acted on “orders from above” – again. In his memoirs, Mayr confirmed it, but made the whole thing even more mysterious and strange.

He claimed that it was General Erich Ludendorff who had personally ordered him to have Hitler join the DAP and build it up. There is a little problem with that claim, however – in the summer of 1919 Ludendorff was an unemployed civilian who had no power whatsoever to give any orders to the Captain of German Reichswehr.

We know that in late 1920s Ludendorff and his wife (Mathilde von Kemnitz) founded the Bund für Gotteserkenntnis (Society for the Knowledge of God), a small and rather obscure esoterical and occult society (that survives to this day, believe it or not).

So it is not inconceivable that in the summer of 1919 Ludendorff had some relationship with the Thule Society which chose to ask Mayr to send Adolf Hitler to the DAP meeting via an informal (civilian) rather than official channel. Apparently at the time Captain Mayr held Ludendorff in sufficient respect to honor his request.

So on September 12th, 1919 Adolf Hitler showed up at a regular meeting of DAP members. The main speaker was one Gottfried Feder. When Feder’s talk concluded, Adolf Hitler got involved in a heated political argument (most likely, provoked and orchestrated by the Thule members) with a visitor, one Professor Baumann.

In vehemently attacking the man’s arguments, Hitler made an impression on the DAP members with his oratory skills, and according to him, the professor left the hall acknowledging defeat. Which, given Hitler’s Transfiguration, was very probably true.

Then DAP Chairman Anton Drexler was not officially a member of the Thule Society. Neither was Gottfried Feder, for that matter. However, in every serious occult society (and Thule was a very serious one given its contribution to the annihilation of the Bavarian Soviet Republic) the official list of its members does not mean much.

The real leaders operate in the shadows, behind the scene and their names usually do not show up in the official membership list. Consequently, it would be fair to assume (given the “totality of evidence” about the role of the Thule Society in the ascent of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party) that both Drexler and Feder were not only members, but actually the “top brass” of the Thule Society.

Leaders and key members of all serious occult societies are well-trained in tools and techniques of psychological manipulation. Consequently, it is no surprise that Anton Drexler and other DAP leaders (all of which were prominent members of DAP) successfully and quickly (within a week) convinced Adolf Hitler to join their party.

On September 19th, 1919, Adolf Hitler officially became the DAP member #555 (the party began counting membership at 500 to give the impression they were a much larger party).

Obviously, Hitler had to obtain the consent of his boss (commanding officer) Karl Mayr to join DAP – he was still in uniform. Karl Mayr approved Hitler’s request – but (given the fact that he was kept in the dark about the “special op” of the Thule Society), it is highly unlikely that he – or anyone else in the “chain of command” ordered Adolf Hitler to join the German Workers’ Party.

The most important phase of “Unternehmen Der Führer” was now completed – and completed successfully. Which paved the way for the second phase – seizing power in Germany.

His Timeline – the “Micro-Biography” of Adolf Hitler (14)

20191115_084921000_iOSEarly June of 1919.  Adolf Hitler is recruited as a Special Intelligence and Propaganda Agent of the Reichswehr. Although the actual Transfiguration of Adolf Hitler took place during the first week of July, the real leaders of Thule (and possibly Vril) Society made the corresponding decision two months earlier – most likely, in mid-May.

During the process of “ideological assessment” of Munich-based Reichswehr personnel, Adolf Hitler demonstrated to Thule leaders that he had the potential to become the Führer of Germany and lead the country to victory in an existential war with Bolshevism.

However, it was still only a potential. And there was a minor problem – Adolf Hitler had no desire whatsoever to go into politics (which was one of the reasons why he insisted on his battalion staying neutral during the whole BSR mess).

Hence, to achieve its objective of “creating Der Führer” the Thule Society had to (1) execute the Transfiguration of Adolf Hitler; and (2) get him into politics. In reality, they started with (2) and did the (1) in the process.

Adolf Hitler was a quintessential Army Man – and hopelessly so. In other words, he had no civilian skills whatsoever and thus could get into politics only via Reichswehr. Which at the time made complete sense as after it crushed the infamous (and insanely Marxist) Bavarian Soviet Republic the German Army de-facto run Bavaria.

So the Thule Society arranged for Adolf Hitler to stay in uniform while his battalion was disbanded in May of 1919. Then, in early June, he was assigned to the (sufficiently obscure) demobilization office of the 2nd Infantry Regiment.

Around this time the Reichswehr High Command issued a very interesting (and highly revealing) order. Then order openly state that

“the main priority of Reichswehr is to carry out, in conjunction with the [German] police, a strict surveillance of the [German] population … so that the ignition of any new unrest can be discovered and extinguished [preventing the repeat of the Communist coups]”

For all practical purposes, it meant that the Weimar Republic was no republic at all – but essentially a military dictatorship. Although the order was deliberately vague on that issue, in reality the German police was subordinate to the Reichswehr, not the other way around. Especially in Bavaria.

On May 30th, one Karl Mayr (then Captain of the Reichswehr and an officer in its General Staff) was appointed the Director of the newly-minted “Education and Propaganda Department” of the Bavarian Reichswehr, Headquarters 4 (Bavaria was still a semi-autonomous entity in Germany which had its own Army – at least on paper).

This department was created specifically to implement the abovementioned order and in reality was the “Intelligence and Indoctrination Department”. Or even “Surveillance and Brainwashing Department”.

There is no evidence that Karl Mayr had any contact with the Thule Society (let alone was its member). So we can only speculate that he acted on Thule’s requests – or possibly direct orders of Thule members.

Mayr’s superiors – generals von Oven and von Möhl commanded troops that crushed the Bavarian Soviet Republic so it is very much possible that they ordered him to recruit Adolf Hitler after receiving the corresponding request from the leaders of the Thule Society.

Anyway, in early June of 1919, Adolf Hitler joined Mayr’s department as a… Special Agent, I would say. His responsibilities were (predictably) intelligence – both internal and external – and propaganda (i.e. brainwashing).

Hitler’s internal intelligence duties were essentially all about identifying soldiers, NCOs and even officers sympathetic to potential “Red troublemakers” – Communists, socialists, social-democrats, etc.

However, his external intelligence/surveillance responsibilities were the reason for the whole Thule-led “special op” of recruiting Adolf Hitler into Mayr’s department. For a very simple reason – these responsibilities involved infiltrating (and, if necessary, joining) political parties deemed “organizations of interest” by Karl Mayr – and the Thule Society.

But first, he had to receive some vitally important training – right after undergoing Transfiguration. Which made Adolf Hitler the greatest orator of the XX century (and possible in the whole modern history).

His Timeline – the “Micro-Biography” of Adolf Hitler (13)

20191024_093153000_iOSOn May 6th, 1919 Lt. General Burghard von Oven – commander-in-chief of the “White” anti-Communist forces declared Munich secure (i.e. free of Communist insurgents). Although the Hoffman government was nominally restored, the actual power in Munich was now in hands of the military.

Who had every desire (and means) to make sure that this Communist abomination never happens again. Consequently, it is no surprise at all that von Oven and his officers immediately decided to conduct a sweeping “political assessment” of all military personnel in a Bavarian capital. With the ultimate objective to purge the armed forces of all Communist and other left-wing sympathizers.

It is a well-established fact that the Thule Society made a crucial (and possibly even decisive) contribution to the annihilation of the Bavarian Soviet Republic. Hence it is no surprise either that its members had every right to be involved in the abovementioned investigation.

However, they had a very different objective in mind – they were looking for a potential Der Führer. The Chosen One, the Messiah, the Leader who would lead the Party (which the Society has already set up), the Reichswehr and the whole German people to victory in a genuinely existential war with the Bolshevist hordes (the Soviet Russia and its fifth columns in Germany, Austria and other European nations).

Society members infiltrated just about every “investigation team” and listened carefully to all officers and enlisted men interviewed by the latter. Searching for a potential Der Führer.

It appears that they found their man in Adolf Hitler – his answers to the interview questions (i.e. his whole presentation of himself) proved it beyond the reasonable doubt. Consequently, when his battalion was disbanded in late May of 1919, Hitler was allowed to stay in the Reichswehr. Much to his delight as the Army was the only environment he was comfortable in.

Now the Society had to find the way to insert Adolf Hitler into their political party. The German Workers’ Party. The DAP. Fortunately, there was an easy and all but effortless way to make it happen.

However, sometime along the way they had to perform a Transfiguration on Adolf Hitler. To transform… still essentially a nobody into a political genius, the greatest orator in modern times, the most highly gifted political entrepreneur and ultimately one of the greatest statesmen of the XX century.

Then Thule Society (possibly powered by the mighty Vril energies) had just about everything to make this Transfiguration happen. However, they still needed another external shock. The shock that would make their job so much faster and easier – almost effortless.

On June 28th, exactly five years after the fateful Sarajevo assassination, the governments of Great Britain, France, the USA, Italy and Japan (victorious “principal Allied powers”) delivered exactly such a shock.

By forcing Germany (essentially at gunpoint) to sign the infamous – and disastrous – Treaty of Versailles.

His Timeline – the “Micro-Biography” of Adolf Hitler (12)

20191011_104042000_iOSHow did it happen? How was Adolf Hitler not only noticed by the Thule Society, but also identified by the latter as the Chosen One – the one worthy of Transfiguration?

We will (most likely) never know for sure – we can only speculate. The most probably theory is something like the following. A week after the Armistice was announced, on 19 November 1918, Adolf Hitler was discharged from the Pasewalk hospital (in the East German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) and returned to Munich.

He arrived there two days later and was immediately assigned to 7th Company of the 1st Replacement Battalion of the 2nd Infantry Regiment. In early December he was reassigned as a guard to a POW camp in Traunstein (a town in the south-eastern part of Bavaria, approximately 11 km east of Lake Chiemsee between Munich and Salzburg).

Sometime in January of 1919, the camp was dissolved. The war was over and the Allied POWs were heading home (at last). Adolf Hitler was transferred to Munich and assigned to an infantry battalion quartered in the Bavarian capital.

At the time, Bavaria (essentially a quasi-independent “state within a state” in now-federal and republican Germany) was in a state of chaos – to put it mildly. On November 8th, 1918, one Kurt Eisner, an idealistic Independent Social Democrat (and a Jew) proclaimed the People’s State of Bavaria thus ending the 700-year rule of the Wittelsbach dynasty.

Which only strengthened Hitler’s (already firm and very much erroneous) belief that the whole mess – and the mess was really spectacular even by the German standards at the time – was the result of the “global Jewish conspiracy” against Germany, Austria and the whole European civilization.

One of the highly dangerous consequences of this mess was all but complete disintegration of the military command structure – both in Bavaria and in the whole Germany.

Consequently, every more or less sizable and separate unit was pretty much on its own – and thus had to develop some kind of modus vivendi with the local government (whatever the government happens to be).

Which created the need for a rather strange position in unit’s command structure – a liaison with the local government (in a normal environment it was usually a job of the unit commander – or one of his deputies).

The whole thing was made even stranger by the introduction of some kind of “military democracy”. Which in practice meant that the liaison was elected by the troops – not appointed by the unit commander.

On April 3rd, 1919 – three days before the infamous Bavarian Soviet Republic (BSR) was established, Adolf Hitler was elected to this position. Two weeks later, he was re-elected.

Which was, actually, no surprise at all. First, he was a mere Gefreiter (corporal) and at that time the troops were likely to vote for one of their own – even a senior NCO, let alone an officer – stood no chance whatsoever.

Second, he was a highly decorated soldier – a Gefreiter had to perform something seriously above and beyond the call of duty to receive Iron Cross First Class (especially accompanied by a Bavarian Cross of Military Merit with Swords).

And third, he apparently was very vocal in support of the position that the overwhelming majority of the enlisted men (i.e. of the voters) fiercely and passionately adhered to – that the battalion should stay the hell out of the fighting (pretty intense at times) and not join either side, either “White” or “Red”.


Bavarian Soviet Republic

LevineApril 6th, 1919.  Bavarian Soviet Republic is established in Munich. It was essentially a clone of the Hungarian Soviet Republic and thus the second attempt of Comintern (i.e. of the Bolshevist leadership of the Soviet Russia and of its leader Vladimir Lenin) to use the Communist “fifth column” to seize power in the European country. With the ultimate objective of transforming the unfortunate nation in question into the Communist hellhole (in a very natural sense).

However, this attempt was a bit more complicated than a previous one. It was made almost immediately after the Communist uprising in Berlin (the so-called “Berlin March Battles”) failed – and failed miserably.

Lenin’s idea apparently was to use the total mess in Bavaria (which was spectacular even by the standards of chaotic revolutionary Germany) to seize power in Munich – and subsequently in the whole Bavaria. And then use the unfortunate former kingdom as a springboard, a bridgehead, a base area, a staging ground for launching an uprising that will ultimately bring Communists to power in the whole Germany.

This time the “Kremlin puppet” nature of the Communist government was even more evident as all three leaders of the Bavarian Soviet Republic were Russian émigrés. And dutifully (and predictably) took orders directly from the Soviet Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin.

Eugen Leviné – the official head of the Communist state – immediately began to enact hardcore Bolshevist reforms, which included forming a “Red Army” from factory workers, seizing cash (i.e. robbing every Bavarian who was even remotely wealthy), food supplies, and privately owned guns, expropriating apartments deemed ‘luxurious’ by his gang, nationalizing factories and other “means of production”… in short, following the “Soviet Russian blueprint” to a “T”.

Crackdown on the Catholic Church was equally ruthless – one of Munich’s main churches was taken over and made into a revolutionary temple dedicated to the “Goddess of Reason.” Bavaria was to be in the vanguard of the Bolshevization of Europe, with all workers to receive military training.

One of the Catholic officials mistreated (to put it mildly) by the Communists was one Eugenio Pacelli – then papal nuncio in Bavaria (and the future Pope Pius XII). This highly unpleasant experience made the future cardinal and pope a committed, dedicated and diehard anti-Communist – and thus a firm supporter of Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich.

Leviné’s comrade Max Levien, following Lenin’s orders (no surprise here), arrested aristocrats and other members of the Munich elite (more precisely, took them hostage).

During Leviné’s short reign, food shortages quickly became a problem (which happens every time one decides to implement the economic ideas of Karl Marx). Especially painful the absence of milk. Public criticism over the milk shortage turned political, precipitating the communist government to publicly declare:

“What does it matter? … Most of it goes to the children of the bourgeoisie anyway. We are not interested in keeping them alive. No harm if they die – they’d only grow into enemies of the proletariat.”

Like in the Hungarian Soviet Republic, these harsh and genuinely insane measures met some serious resistance. On April 13th, troops loyal to the Hoffmann government-in-exile, along with the Kampfbund (combat league) led by… Thule Society, attempted to overthrow the Communist government. The coup failed (as it did in Hungary later) which ultimately resulted in the execution of hostages – members of the Thule Society on April 20th.

Which turned out to be a big mistake – real big. Enraged beyond belief, the leaders of the Thule society put together a formidable force of Freikorps and other right-wing paramilitary units that on May 1st broke through Communist defenses and entered Munich.

It was a bloodbath. A massacre. Using flame-throwers, heavy artillery, armored vehicles, even combat aircraft, the Freikorps practically annihilated the Communist “Red Army”. More than 600 were killed, including a prominent anarchist (and a Commissioner of Enlightenment and Public Instruction) Gustav Landauer.

Eugene Leviné was captured, tried by a military court, found guilty of treason (which was actually true and correct), sentenced to death and executed by a firing squad in Stadelheim Prison in Munich. Max Levien escaped… only to be arrested, tried, sentenced to death and executed in the Soviet Union in 1937 – during Stalin’s Great Purge.

From the “life and death of the Bavarian Soviet Republic”, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis derived exactly the same two conclusions as they did from its Hungarian “brother” (or “sister”).

First, that the Bolshevist Soviet Russia (subsequently the Soviet Union) were the existential threat to European countries, Europe and the whole Western civilization. Which was undoubtedly correct.

The second conclusion was no less undoubtedly incorrect. It was derived from the undeniable fact that Eugene Leviné, Max Levien, Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam and other leaders of the Bavarian Soviet Republic were Jewish.

Hence, the Nazis (incorrectly) viewed the Bavarian Soviet Republic and the whole Communist project as the key component of the “global Jewish conspiracy” to establish full power and control over our world (i.e. the whole human civilization). Which for practical purposes meant destroying the latter and transforming it into a global totalitarian Jewish-dominated Bolshevist state.

Subsequently ignoring the no less undeniable fact that Max Levien (and thousands and thousands of Jews by blood) were arrested, tried, sentenced to death and executed by the Bolshevist Soviet state.

Active participants in the Freikorps units – those of Oven, Franz Ritter von Epp, and Hermann Erhardt – that suppressed the Bavarian Soviet Republic included many future powerful members of the Nazi Party, including Rudolf Hess, a member of the Freikorps Epp.

It appears that the short-lived but bloody Bavarian Soviet Republic became the “final straw” that convinced the Thule Society of the seriousness and of the existential nature of the Bolshevist threat to Germany, Europe, the Western civilization – and to the whole Western civilization.

Which made its leaders commence the search for the Messiah – the Chosen One – who would lead Germany and its allies to victory in the existential war with the Bolshevist hordes – and their leader, the “Red Tamerlane” Joseph Stalin.

Just two months later they had their Messiah – one previously totally unknown Gefreiter Adolf Hitler.

Berlin March Battles of 1919

Berlin, Revolution, Standrechtlich Erschossene

March 3rd, 1919. Berlin March Battles begin (on the very next day after the Comintern is officially founded in Moscow). It was the last, the bloodiest and the least-known (practically forgotten actually) Communist attempt to seize power in Germany (in the whole of Germany that it) in 1918-19.

Consequently, historians usually consider the Berliner Märzkämpfe the final event in the German Revolution of 1918-19. In other words, these bloody events brought the revolution to its (long-awaited) end.

The two key objectives of this Communist uprising  – the whole thing was started and run by the Communist Party of Germany and the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany – were to (1) nationalize the key German industries; and (2) place the German army under a firm control of soldiers’ councils.

Which in just about no time would have given the Communists full control over German economy and its armed forces. And thus over the whole country, opening the road to its Bolshevization.

The Battles began (relatively) peacefully on March 3rd, 1919 – on exactly the same day the founding Congress of the Communist International opened in Moscow. Which means that for all practical purposes, the Berliner Märzkämpfe were the first revolutionary project of Comintern. Fortunately for Germany, Europe and very possibly for the whole world, this “pilot project” failed – and failed miserably.

It started (as usual) with a general strike called by the workers’ council of AEG Hennigsdorf – a rail vehicle (locomotive) factory near Berlin with a specific purpose of enforcing the abovementioned demands.

The federal government had no desire whatsoever to hand control over the whole German economy (let alone of its armed forces) to Communists, so it (more specifically, its defense minister Gustav Noske) predictably declared a state of siege (far more draconian that the state of emergency) in Berlin.

This decision by the government (which made complete sense) no less predictably transformed a (relatively) peaceful affair into an armed – and ultimately bloody – uprising. A Communist coup attempt, to be more precise.

The notorious Volksmarinedivision (People’s Navy Division), a paramilitary unit created on November 11th, 1918 to “defend the German Revolution”, immediately began distributing weapons to the strikers. With the obvious objective of seizing power in Berlin – and ultimately in the whole Germany – by the force of arms.

To prevent this from happening (another decision that made complete sense, the government turned to the Freikorps – the loyalist paramilitary units that had already saved Germany once (by crushing a Spartacist uprising of a similar nature in January of the same year).

Five units entered Berlin on March 4th – the Freikorps Reinhard, Freikorps Lützow, Freikorps Hülsen, Guards Cavalry Rifle Division and German Protection Division. Volksmarinedivision resisted fiercely but the “counter-revolutionaries” had a decisive and overwhelming advantage in personnel and hardware.

Using aircraft, tanks, armored cars, artillery, mortars and machine guns, the Freikorps crushed the Communist rebels – again. However, it took them ten days to restore order – the last barricade was captured by the loyalists only on March 13th.

Due to the overwhelming superiority of the Freikorps in military hardware, it was actually more of a massacre than of a battle. Only 75 Freikorps members were killed by the insurgents while the latter lost about 1,200 dead.

One of these was the leader of the German Communists Leon “Leo” Jogiches. Who was, yes, Jewish. His successor Paul Levi was Jewish as well. Although at the time of the Battles Leo Jogiches was in jail, he was still officially the leader of the Communists (and thus of the uprising).

These indisputable facts were – again – misinterpreted by Adolf Hitler and the Nazis. For them these facts were another proof beyond the reasonable doubt that the Battles – and the whole “Communist project” were the key parts of a global Jewish conspiracy for taking over the whole world.

Which added another “layer of snow” to the mass that 22 years later will trigger the “Holocaust avalanche”.