By mid-1943, Allied bombings became a serious problem for the leadership of the Third Reich. A very serious problem. An existential problem, even. However, the most serious problem was not the air raids per se, but the painfully obvious fact that (a) Luftwaffe did not have enough fighters to put an end to devastating strategic bombings; (2) the German industry simply could not produce enough fighters – or AA guns – for the Luftwaffe; and (3) it could never produce sufficient fuel for the Luftwaffe to feed both the frontline and air defense aircraft.
Consequently, it is no wonder that by mid-1943, Nazi Germany began to seriously develop not one, but five guided surface-to-air-missiles – Enzian, Feuerlilie, Schmetterling, Rheintochter and Wasserfall.