Contrary to an almost universal misconception, the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-20 was not one, but actually three wars fought at the same time by not two, but four countries – Poland (the Second Polish Republic), the Ukrainian People’s Republic (a predecessor of modern Ukraine), Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine (the latter was nominally independent but in reality run from Moscow).
The first was a noble war fought by the Ukrainian People’s Republic (which declared independence from Russia on January 25th, 1918) for its freedom and independence from both Russia and Poland.
The first war was the local war fought by two predators – Poland and Russia – over the control of an area equivalent to today’s Ukraine and parts of modern-day Belarus. Consequently, there was nothing noble about that war at all – the objectives of both sides were equally ignoble.
The third – and by far the most important – war that made the Polish-Soviet War the most important “Inter-War” conflicts of 1919-1938 by far was the existential war between Poland and Russia for the very survival of Poland, Germany and quite possibly the whole continental Europe. Which makes the Polish-Soviet War essentially a predecessor of World War II on the Eastern Front.
Although the Soviet Russia (more precisely, the Bolshevist clique that ran it) wanted to occupy the abovementioned territories, it wanted more. Much more. Ultimately, they wanted the whole continental Europe.
Consequently, their strategic objectives of this war was to occupy Poland and Germany (defenseless after the Treaty of Versailles), establish puppet Communist regimes in these countries and then use them as a springboard, a beachhead for spreading the “socialist revolution” to other European nations (by organizing an armed uprising, coup d’état or by a direct military invasion).
These objectives stemmed from the fundamental principle of “permanent revolution” preached by Leon Trotsky – the second most powerful man in Soviet Russia.
At that time he held the position of People’s Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs which made him a Minister of Defense of Soviet Russia and Commander-in-Chief of its armed forces.
According to this principle (a fundamental belief, actually), the Communist regime in Russia can survive (let alone succeed) only if it starts an avalanche of “socialist revolutions” in Europe (first and foremost, in Germany) and subsequently transforms the whole human civilization into a global Communist state.
In the long run, Trotsky turned out to be right. The Soviet Union (successor to the Soviet Russia) failed to start this “avalanche” and in August of 1991 the Communist regime in this country ceased to exist. The once-mighty USSR fell apart and went into the dustbin of history a few months later – in December of that year.
The Polish-Soviet War was the first attempt of the Bolshevist clique to put this theory into practice. The second should have been the invasion of Germany in 1941 preempted by Operation Barbarossa (according to some estimates, by mere 24 hours).
The Treaty of Versailles required Germany to withdraw its troops from the territories of former Russian Empire that they occupied according to the terms of Brest-Litovsk peace treaty with the Soviet Russia.
This withdrawal created a “power vacuum” that made these lands a lucrative prey for both Soviet Russia (that wanted to restore the Empire and transform it into a Communist state) and for Poland (that wanted to create a Polish-led Intermarium – the union of nominally independent state that would become a counterweight to any potential threat on the part of Russia or of Germany). Consequently, the war between Poland and the Soviet Russia over these territories was all but inevitable.
Especially after the latter began (after annulling the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on November 13th, 1918) is “Westward Offensive”. With the objective of occupying Belarus, Ukraine and the Baltic States, establish puppet Communist governments there and ultimately to incorporate these territories into the Communist state (the future Soviet Union).
In the Baltic states, the offensive failed miserably (the Soviet Russia was forced to recognize the independence of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia) but in Ukraine and Belarus it was far more successful.
So successful in fact that in January 1920 the Red Army began concentrating a 700,000-strong force in Belarus with the ultimate objective to invade and occupy Poland and then Germany.
Although by that time the Polish Army had roughly the same number of troops as its Soviet counterpart, it was far inferior in terms of weapons. The Red Army had at their disposal much military equipment left by withdrawing Germans, and modern Allied armaments (including armored cars, armored trains, trucks and artillery) captured from the White Russians and the Allied expeditionary forces following their defeat in the Russian Civil War.
The Poles could rely on far more limited supplies of weapons and ammunition (in quantity, scope and quality). Consequently, the Soviet High Command anticipated an easy victory over their Polish adversaries.
The Polish High Command (led by the Chief of State Józef Pilsudski) did not agree and began their own slow but steady advance eastward. On January 21st, after three weeks of heavy fighting, the Polish forces captured the Latvian city of Dyneburg and promptly handed it over to the Latvian government.
By March, Polish forces had driven a wedge between Soviet forces in the north (Belarus) and south (Ukraine), capturing the towns of Mozyrz and Kalenkowicze and significantly disrupting Soviet plans for their early offensive.
It is well-known that the best defense is a powerful offence so on April 24 Polish Army began its main offensive, Operation Kiev, aimed at creating an independent Ukraine to become part of Intermarium Federation and an ally against the Soviets (and Germans). They captured Kiev on May 7th meeting only a token resistance.
However, on May 15th the Red Army launched a powerful counteroffensive and by June 15th forced the Polish Army into retreat along the entire front. On June 13th, the Soviet 1st Cavalry Army entered Kiev.
On July 4th, the Red Army began another, even more powerful offensive and by August 10th reached the outskirts of Warsaw. The Soviets were only a few kilometers from Warsaw… and Berlin was less than a week’s march away.
It seemed that the fall of Poland and Germany (which at that time was totally defenseless thanks to the idiotic terms of the Treaty of Versailles) to the Communists was inevitable. With devastating consequences for the whole Europe and for the whole Western civilization.
And then the “Miracle on the Vistula River” happened. Outnumbered and heavily outgunned, the Polish Army led by brilliant Pilsudsky outsmarted its Soviet counterpart and (blitzkrieg-style) delivered a devastating blow to the advancing Red Army.
The latter was forced to retreat and the subsequent rapid eastward advance of the Polish Army forced the Soviet Russia to sue for peace. In October the armistice was signed followed by a formal peace treaty (the Peace of Riga), which was signed on March 18th, 1921.
The Polish-Soviet war was over. Poland, Germany and the whole Europe were saved from occupation and destruction by the Bolsheviks.
Obviously, Adolf Hitler (like millions of other Germans) closely followed the events of this war – at least in July-August of 1920 when the seemingly unstoppable Red Army was a week away from Berlin (and thus presented a clear and present existential threat to Germany).
No less obviously, he made the following fundamental conclusions which subsequently heavily influenced the principles and objectives of his domestic and foreign policy.
If left to its own devices, the Soviet Russia will inevitably try again to conquer and destroy Europe and incorporate it into a Soviet State run from Moscow. He was dead right – twenty years later it will. Thus, it presents an existential threat to Germany, Europe and the whole Western civilization.
It can (and must) be stopped with a lightning-fast (blitzkrieg-style) military strike. Twenty years later, on June 22nd, 1941, Hitler’s Germany will launch Operation Barbarossa – exactly such blitzkrieg. Which did prevent the Soviet Union from conquering and destroying the whole Europe (it occupied only its Eastern part).
This time, none of the commanders of the enemy force was Jewish. Tukhachevsky was Polish (believe it or not); Stalin was Georgian; Budyonny, Kamenev and Yegorov were Russian.
However, the Commander-in-Chief of Russian Armed forces (and the key driving force between the theory and practice of “permanent revolution”) was Leon Trotsky. Who was a Jew (his real last name was Bronstein). And the initial author of this concept was none other than Karl Marx himself – also a Jew.
Consequently, Adolf Hitler made the inevitable (and totally erroneous) conclusion that this war (and the whole theory and practice of “permanent revolution”) was a part of a “global Jewish conspiracy”.